Which are the most common forms of musculoskeletal impairment?

Back and spine diseases and injuries are the most common forms of musculoskeletal impairment.

How can you keep your bones healthy and avoid orthopedic problems?

Bone minerals are composed of large amounts of calcium. For children and adolescents, between 10 and 20 years of age, calcium should be made a critical dietary component, with at least 1300 mg. per day recommended. In the case of older individuals too, past the age of 35, calcium supplements and adequate exercise can help reduce the loss.

What is the difference between a sprain and fracture?

A fracture refers to a break in a bone, resulting from an accident or a traumatic injury. A fracture rarely involves surgery and is generally treated by immobilizing the bone using a cast or a splint.

A sprain refers to an injury of the ligaments. Sprain often happens when the ligaments are overstretched, past their normal range of motion. A sprain could be accompanied by swelling and severe pain.

What is the main cause of arthritis?

When the cartilage, the layer of tissue that covers the end of the bones at the juncture of each joint, wears away, the joints become painful, inflamed and sore. This condition is called Arthritis.

What are the most common injuries that affect people in workplaces?

In an office environment, Carpal tunnel syndrome is found to affect a good number of people. It is the result of repetitive forceful movements, such as typing on the keyboard. Other jobs that are especially vulnerable to this condition are dental hygienists, meat-cutters, and machine operators.

Should I apply ice to an injury?

Ice must be applied in the acute stage of an injury i.e. within the first 24-48 hours, or whenever there is inflammation. Ice helps to minimize inflammation by decreasing the blood flow to the region.

What is meant by physical therapy?

Physical therapy refers to the treatment of musculoskeletal and neurological injuries so as to promote a normal return to function and independent living. Physical therapy includes exercise as well as functional training. While exercise restores motion and strength, functional training enables a return to daily activities, work, or sport.

What is a tendon?

A tendon refers to a band of tissue that connects muscle to bone.

What is a corticosteroid injection?

Cortisone is a steroid which is naturally produced in the body. Synthetically-produced cortisone is injected into soft tissues and joints to reduce pain and inflammation. In orthopedics, cortisone injections are generally used as a treatment for certain chronic conditions such as bursitis, tendinitis, and arthritis.

What is an epidural?

An epidural is a potent steroid injection that helps to reduce the inflammation of compressed spinal nerves in order to relieve severe pain in the back, neck, arms or legs. Cortisone is directly injected into the spinal canal to achieve pain relief from serious conditions such as herniated disks, spinal stenosis, or radiculopathy. While some patients may require only one injection, it usually takes two or three injections, given two weeks apart, for significant pain relief.

What are NSAIDs?

NSAIDs or Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs refer to over-the-counter pain relievers such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen sodium. They are used to treat muscular aches and pains as well as arthritis. NSAIDs not only act as pain relievers but also help to reduce inflammation, prevent blood clots, and reduce fevers.

What is arthroscopic surgery?

One of the most common orthopaedic procedures, Anthroscopy helps an orthopedic surgeon to clearly visualize, diagnose, and treat problems within the joints with the help of small instruments and cameras.

In this process, one or more small incisions are made around the joint. The surgeon then inserts an instrument called an arthoscope into the joint. The arthoscope consists of a fiber-optic light source and small television camera that enables the surgeon to view the joint on a television monitor. Thus he is able to diagnose the problem, ascertain the extent of injury, and make the necessary repairs to the damaged joint.

What is joint replacement surgery?

Joint replacement surgery is performed to replace a damaged joint with a new, artificial joint known as a Prosthesis. The most commonly replaced joints are the knee and hip, although shoulders, ankles and elbows can also be replaced.

All the joints in our body contain cartilage that acts as a protective cover for the ends of bones and facilitates movement. If the joint has been damaged or injured, the cartilage wears away and the bones of the joint start rubbing against each other. This may lead to the formation of bone spurs and the joint might become stiff and painful. Joint replacement surgery is recommended if all the other conservative treatment methods have failed to produce the desired results.

How long does an artificial joint last?

On an average, artificial joints have a lifespan of about 10 to 20 years.

What is meant by ACL reconstruction?

ACL reconstruction refers to a surgical procedure that is performed to repair a torn Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL), one of the four ligaments that help to stabilize our knee. ACL reconstruction is often performed through arthroscopic surgery.

Differentiate between a sprain and a strain?

A strain occurs when your muscle is stretched or torn while a sprain occurs when your ligament is stretched or torn. Strains are often caused by overuse use of a muscle. Sprains generally occur when a joint is subjected to excessive force or sudden movements such as twists, turns, or stops.

What is frozen shoulder?

Frozen shoulder refers to a condition in which the tissues surrounding the shoulder joint stiffen, scar tissue forms, and shoulder movements become extremely difficult and painful. Thos condition can usually develop when you stop using the particular joint because of pain, injury, or a chronic health condition, such as diabetes. Any shoulder problem can ultimately lead to frozen shoulder if you do not work properly to maintain its full range of motion.

What is carpal tunnel syndrome?

Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when there is excessive pressure on the median nerve within the wrist. This condition develops over time due to repetitive hand motions that damage muscles and bones in the wrist area.

What is tennis elbow?

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, refers to inflammation of the tendon that joins the muscles of the forearm, wrist, and hand to the upper arm at the elbow. The tendon on the lateral part of the elbow is often affected by overuse during physical activity.

What are shin splints?

Shin splints refer to a condition in which the periosteum, the fibrous sheath that surrounds the bone, is inflamed. In this case, the affected bone is the tibia or shin bone. Shin splints are generally accompanied by pain and inflammation in the front of the lower leg. This condition is mostly common among athletes.